Construction

Aggregates of concrete and their density

The strength of cement concrete depends upon the physical, chemical and thermal properties of aggregates. Proper selection and grading of aggregates are important consideration both economically and technically. Aggregates are cheaper than cement and provide greater volume stability and durability to concrete.

Following are the density of coarse aggregate

  • Broken stone ballast
    • Dry well shaken=1600—1870 kg/cum
    • Perfectly wet    =1920—2240 kg/cum
    • Shingles 3-38mm=1460 kg/cum
  • Gravel
    • Loose                 = 1600 kg/ cum
    • Un disturbed        =1920-2160 kg/cum
    • Riprap                    =1280—1440 kg/cum
  • Granite                       = 2630—2760 kg/cum
  • Brick Ballast                = 1200 kg/ cum 
  1. The IS Code of fine aggregate= IS: 2686—1977
  2. The IS Code of coarse aggregate= IS:383
  3. The IS Code of Cement
    1. 33 grade ordinary Portland cement=IS: 269
    2. 43 grade ordinary Portland cement=IS: 8112
    3. 53 grade ordinary Portland cement=IS: 12269
    4. Rapid Hardening Portland cement   =IS: 8041
    5. Portland Slag Cement                     =IS: 455
    6. Portland Pozzolona Cement              =IS: 1489 part I and 2
    7. Hydrophobic Cement                       =IS:8043s
    8. Low Heat Portland cement              =IS : 12600
    9. Sulphate resisting Portland cement   =IS: 12330

Density of Coarse Aggregate

Aggregate which occupy nearly 80 to 85 % volume of concrete are most important part of the concrete or RCC. However, it is well recognize that physical, chemical and thermal properties of aggregate substantially influence the properties and performance of concrete. Proper selection and grading of aggregates are important consideration, both economically as well as technically. Aggregates are generally cheaper than cement and provide greater volume stability and durability to concrete. In cement concrete or RCC following ingredients are mixed such as

Aggregate of concrete

  • Cement
  • Coarse Aggregates
  • Fine Aggregates
  • Water

Coarse Aggregate 

Coarse Aggregate in general should consist of natural occurring stones (crushed, uncrushed or broken) stones, riverbed single or pit gravel. It should be hard, strong, dense, durable, and clean. It must be free from veins, adherent coatings and injurious amounts of disintegrated pieces, alkali, vegetable matter and other deleterious substances. River gravels make the best coarse aggregate. Angular and roughly cubical particles in shape are ideal. Flaky pieces shall be avoided. It should confirm to IS 2383(I).

Weight of Coarse Aggregate

 The normal weight of stone aggregate in loose state is= 1400 to 1600 kg per cum, but for illustration an average value 1500 kg per cum is considered.
Grading of coarse aggregate
Proper graded material should be used for achieving good bond stress. Grading of coarse aggregates are important consideration for getting maximum strength of concrete and RCC and significant both economically as well as technically. Grading should be according to the table as given below:

Coarse Aggregate Size for Concrete

 #  IS Sieve Size of Designation (mm)

 Percentage

    40mm

 Passing

20mm

 (by weight)

16mm

for material

12.5mm 

 1.  75  100  ---  ---  ---
 2.  37.5  95-100  100  ---  --- 
 3.  19  33-77  95-100  100  ---
 4.  16  ---  ---  95-100  100
 5.  11.2  ---  ---  ---  90-100
 6.  9.5  10-35  25-35  30-70  40-85
 7.  4.75  0-5  0-10  0-10  0-10 

Density of coarse Aggregate

Following are the density of coarse aggregate

  • Broken stone ballast
    • Dry well shaken=1600—1870 kg/cum
    • Perfectly wet    =1920—2240 kg/cum
    • Shingles 3-38mm=1460 kg/cum
  • Gravel
    • Loose                 = 1600 kg/ cum
    • Un disturbed        =1920-2160 kg/cum
    • Riprap                =1280—1440 kg/cum
  • Granite                  = 2630—2760 kg/cum
  • Brick Ballast           = 1200 kg/ cum 

Note: Brick aggregate is not used in RCC work.

Density of fine aggregate

Corse Sand    

Dry clean =1540—1600 kg/cum
         River       = 1840 kg/cum
         Wet         =1760—2000 kg/cum

Fine Sand
         Dry sand =1600 kg/ cum
         Saturated =2080 kg/cum

Density of Cement   

Ordinary Portland cement=1440kg/cum
    Rapid Hardening cement =1350kg/ cum

Bulk density of coarse aggregate=1600 to 1800 kg/ cum

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