How to Design Stairs?

 

While designing stairs the house owner should consider every design requirement of the stairs since well designed stairs provide easy access to upper floors of the house. The steps of stairs may be constructed as a series of horizontal treads. The tread is horizontal width of stairs step whereas the enclosed space between treads is known as riser. The part of building having stairs is known as staircase. This article tells you about necessary design requirements to be kept in mind while designing stairs.

Stair Designs

Essential requirements of stairs

You can design comfy stairways concerning average human height. During design process many things such as dimensions of an average person, average comfortable walking stride; fixing gradient or pitch of stairs, height of hand rail and minimum head room should be considered. A well designed stair has easy access and proportions of treads and risers should be more than twice the rise. 

Various stair layouts from straight flight to a number of intricate curves and landings have similar basic principle of stair design. The stairs should be comfortable to walk on not only for the young but also for the old. People usually prefer to the straight stairways for easy access to upwards and downwards.

Stair Designs

Materials for construction of stairs

The most commonly used materials in construction of stairs are - stone, timber, steel and RCC. 

Design requirements for stairs

Width of stairs

Minimum width of stairs for single family house should be 75 cm and if the number of users is more than 10, minimum width of stairs should be 95 cm whereas minimum width of stairs for two or more family houses should be 100 cm and if the number of users is more than 10, minimum width of stairs should be 125 cm. Minimum width of stairs for hotels, offices, educational buildings, theaters, cinema halls should be 1.5 meters while minimum width of stairs for institutional buildings and hospitals etc. should be 2 meters.
    Note: The width of landing should be more or at least equal to the length of steps. It is preferable to provide two or more staircases where the number of users exceeds 300. 

      Tread of stairs

      Minimum width of a tread for residential building should be 250 mm. In special case due to non availability of space, the minimum width of tread for residential building and small commercial units should be 200 mm. Minimum width of a tread for non residential building should be 300 mm. 

      Tread: it is horizontal width of a stair step  

      Riser of stairs

      Maximum height of riser for residential building should be 190 to 200 mm whereas maximum height of riser for non residential building should be 150 to 170 mm. 

      Riser: it is the height of a stair step.   

      Slope of stairs

      Minimum slope of stairs with floor should be 26 degrees whereas maximum slope of stairs with floor should be 45 degrees. Ideal slope of stairs with floor should be 30 degrees.

      Hand Railing

      Hand Railing should be made at stairs for comfort while going up and down the stairs. The height of handrail should not be less than 800 mm and more than 900 mm.

      Stair Design

      Head Room

      Minimum clear head room or the height of roof from any step of stairs should be 2.1 to 2.2 meter for easy movement of large furniture. It is also useful for movement of other household items.  

      Provision of light

      The stairs should be well lighted with two ways electric switches provided at top and foot of stairs.

      General Tips

      • Keep same length, width and height of steps of stairs otherwise it would lead to accidents. 
      • Install a gate at the top or bottom of stairs for safety and security reasons.
      • Don’t keep more than 250 mm space between supports of handrail in houses to avoid any accidental fall especially for kids.
      • Keep maximum height of one flight not be more than 2.4 meters.
      • Construct maximum number of steps in one flight not more than 15 and provide landing after 15 steps for comfort while moving up and down the stairs. 
      • Provide nosing on treads while laying flooring to enhance the width of tread.
      • Design stairs in such a way as the riser makes obtuse angle with tread to enhance the width of tread.
      • Don’t make the floor of steps slippery. Make grooves in case of cement concrete floor to avoid slippage. 
      • Make provisions of getting natural light and ventilation while designing stairs. 

       

       
      20  Comment(s)
      nitinn gupta
      By nitinn gupta -  On  10/17/2013 1:17:19 PM
      BANSWARA WHITE A WRITE CHOISE OF MARBLE OR NOT ,PLEASE SUGGEST ME OTHER OPPSSITON IN MARBLE .
       
      SCK
      By SCK -  On  10/5/2013 5:40:33 PM
      I am making stairs in my house. It comprises of 1 slope (ramp), 1 platform (landing) and than another slope and than final platform for reaching the terrace.
      I want to the strength of concrete (m 15, m 20 or m 25 )to be kept while laying the slabs.
      I also want to know the size of TMT bar for the side arm of slope and for jaal of slope and platform.
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 12/29/2012 8:18:22 PM
      stair case
       
      kiran kumar 3k
      By kiran kumar 3k -  On  7/19/2012 8:23:35 AM
      Yes really it was very useful information thanks & regards
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 7/18/2012 5:57:03 PM
      information about stair are most usefule for desiging of stair but information about Mat are most useful for desiging of entrance see the difference
       
      Arumugam
      By Arumugam -  On  6/30/2012 9:35:29 PM
      Very Useful Informations.
       
      bhagwat singh
      By bhagwat singh -  On  5/29/2012 12:48:21 PM
      super stares good idea
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 4/29/2012 10:29:57 PM
      some parameters shown here are wrong like maximum no of steps in one flight should not be more than 12[twelve]
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 4/27/2012 5:38:56 PM

      Slope of stairs

      Minimum slope of stairs with floor should be 26 degrees whereas maximum slope of stairs with floor should be 45 degrees. Ideal slope of stairs with floor should be 30 degrees.
      Hand Railing

      Hand Railing should be made at stairs for comfort while going up and down the stairs. The height of handrail should not be less than 800 mm and more than 900 mm.
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 4/27/2012 5:37:31 PM
      Enter your feedback about this articleThe article, "Basement Flooring", was viewed 1000th time by GharExpert users. at 16:21

      Basement Flooring need extra care because of moist and dampness conditions. Read details about basement flooring options and precautions you need to take while choosing flooring for basement Find Information About
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      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 4/27/2012 5:36:13 PM
      Enter your feedback about this articleBy Er Bharat Humar - On 9/17/2009 7:22:53 AM
      information about stair are most usefule for desiging of stair
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 2/2/2012 1:14:10 PM
      strair in public buildings like offices etc are not given
       
      arvind kumar
      By arvind kumar -  On  12/4/2011 8:48:37 AM
      stairs information are very important while constructing their dream houseand it providesus.
       
      B N SHANBHAG
      By B N SHANBHAG -  On  2/16/2011 9:18:08 PM
      I would like to construct about 1000 to 12oo sq ft carpet area single stories house at Kumta karnataka. I would like to know the estimated cost and advice. I am a retired person and devote full time
       
      nityadeo
      By nityadeo -  On  9/18/2010 6:34:37 PM
      plsguidemeforconstructionofbuilding
       
      ravi
      By ravi -  On  6/5/2010 2:55:38 PM
      its really educative even for a nomad
       
      Thangavelu
      By Thangavelu -  On  2/5/2010 1:04:38 PM
      What shuold be the total number of steps between ground floor and first floor for residential building as per vastu
       
      Gunjan Utraja
      By Gunjan Utraja -  On  10/27/2009 2:12:10 PM
      You can click on the link given below for the designing and different styles of stairs
      http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Interior-Life-Style-1910/Stairs-design_0.aspx

       
      suresh
      By suresh -  On  10/25/2009 10:11:04 PM
      Very Useful Information
       
      Er Bharat Humar
      By Er Bharat Humar -  On  9/17/2009 7:22:53 AM
      information about stair are most usefule for desiging of stair
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