Door is a solid barrier that is fixed in a door way or opening of a wall with the help of iron lugs or hold fasts in the walls, where as windows are fixed in the wall generally at 2’-3” to 3’ high level and ventilators are fixed above door level height. It can be open for excess to and from buildings and between rooms are closed for privacy.
Door, window and ventilator consist of two parts one part is frame of the door, window and ventilator and other part is shutter of the door, window and ventilator. Door frame consists of three members where as window and ventilator frame consists with minimum four members. The classification of door, window and ventilator frames according to material is as under.
- Wooden door, window and ventilator frame, there are many type of wood according to their qualities and cost which are used in frames.
- Aluminum door, window and ventilator frame.
- Metal door frame, window and ventilator frame.
Wood is still most popular choice of material for construction of doors, windows and ventilators because of ease of cutting, shaping and joinery with simple hand tools. In general use teak wood, deodar wood and hard wood are used in doors, windows and ventilators frames.
Various Types of frames of doors, windows and ventilators:
Detail of various types of door, window and ventilator in different types of buildings are as under:
- Teak wood frame
Teak wood door and window frame are used in Hotels, Rest House, Temples, Ban glows & other high standard important buildings, where architectural look is required. This is costly wood.
- Deodar wood frame
This is soft wood and can be used where some designs in wood work is required this is medium class wood.
- Hard wood frame
The hard wood doors & window frames are used in small commercial and residential houses. This wood is cheap in cost.
- Pressed steel frame
Where there is termite problem, pressed steel frame is to used . These are low in cost and generally used in Govt. buildings.
- Angle Iron frame
These are used in low cost buildings.
Fixing of Frame
The door and window frames are fixed with iron hold fasts. Before fixing the frame, the surface of frame abutting masonry and bottom of the frame treated with two coats of anti- termite treatment in case of wooden frame. One end of holdfast is fixed on the wooden frame by three no screws and in case of metal frame the end is welded with frame. The hold fast is embedded in cement concrete 1:3:6.
Fine sand should consist of natural sand or crushed stone sand. It should be hard, durable, clean and be free from organic matter etc. and should not contain any appreciable amount of clay balls and harmful impurities such as alkalis, salts, coal, decayed vegetation etc.