Sewerage and drainage systems are used to carry waste from building to public sewer system. Where public sewerage does not exist, the disposal is made into septic tank, socking pits etc. (Individual disposal system). The following are systems of sewerage and plumbing.
1. Combined Sewerage System
It’s a system in which the foul water (sewage) and surface water is carried through same sewers and drains.
2. Separate Sewerage System
It’s a system in which the foul water and surface water is carried through separate sewers and drains.
3. Partially Separate Sewerage System
It’s a system in which a part of surface water is carried through foul sewers and drains.
1. One Pipe System
The pipe of waste water from sinks, baths and wash basins and branches of soil pipes is connected to one main pipe. This main pipe is directly connected to sewerage system. Gulley (gutter) traps and waste pipes are completely distributed but all traps of water closets, basins, etc. are completely ventilated to preserve water seal.
2. One-Pipe System Partially Ventilated
It is also called single stack, ventilated partially. There is one soil pipe which discharges waste of water closets, baths, sinks and basins. There is a relief vent which ventilates only foul smell of water closet.
3. Two-Pipe System
In this system soil and waste pipes are distinct and separate. The soil pipes are connected to sewer directly whereas waste pipes are connected through a trapped gulley (gutter). All traps of all appliances are completely ventilated.
4. Single Stack System
In this system entire soil and waste discharge into a single pipe called soil cum waste pipe. This system is the same as one pipe system, but without trap, ventilation pipe work.
5. Single stack partially ventilated system
In this system there is one soil pipe in which all soil and waste appliances discharge and only the trap of all soil appliances are ventilated through single ventilation pipe. Thus the system has a soil cum waste pipe and one ventilation pipe for soil appliances only.
In construction of building or house like all other components, water supply is also very important part of building construction. If there is any short coming found in laying water supply line in the house, than this will create big problem both in functioning of house and leakage also damage the plaster, paint and structure.
Fine sand should consist of natural sand or crushed stone sand. It should be hard, durable, clean and be free from organic matter etc. and should not contain any appreciable amount of clay balls and harmful impurities such as alkalis, salts, coal, decayed vegetation etc.