Construction

Basement Flooring

Basements are part of a building that is either completely or partially below the natural ground. Some people think that basement as a dark, barren and dreary room in comparison to the rest of the house. Basement building is typically used for various utility according to the need of person such as storage or cellar, parking, for installation light machinery or any small manufacturing unit, indoor games and for office etc.

(Finished Basement Interiors with Basement Flooring)

(This Picture is Contributed by "JMahajan")

When good living condition like free access, ventilation and proper water supply and sanitation facility are available in the basement than one can use the space for living purposes. At the time of construction of basement, one should follow the standard specifications and proper planning for the safety of the basement and rest of the building. At the time of finishing a basement, one should be very careful in choosing basement flooring option i.e. it should be effective and long lasting flooring options, Because basements is moist or damp by nature and prone to water seepage problem. The flooring materials that hold good on the ground floor and above will simply not hold good below ground i.e. in basement. One should examine the common options of flooring for basement. One should use basement as like ground floor almost exactly the same manner or as an additional story of a house or other building. Factor relating to the use of basements have widely concern relating to a particular geographical condition of basement such as climate, nature of soil, seismic activity, construction technology, and real estate economics/ cost of land.

(Basement Flooring Design with Proper Lighting Effect)

(This Picture is Contributed By "JMahajan")

When selecting the type of floor for basement area of a building, one should think about the natural properties of the basement living space i.e. considerably dissimilar from the main living area of the building or space. After great care in laying waterproofing system and drainage system, there is no assurance or guaranty that the smallest amount of dampness will not come from the ground water through the porous floor and subsequently leak into your flooring system of basement. Some time the problem of back flow of floor drains and plumbing pipes can cause flooring disasters and create big problem. In general the basement flooring is laid over the top of a cement slab or on RCC footing. It is most important to construct basement flooring properly which have key importance.

Before selecting or laying the flooring system of basement, one should be very careful about the base of the flooring and its water proofing. One should consult civil engineer or floor specialist about base strength and water proofing and to take measures that to minimize water vapor penetration and dampness. Entry of outside water, rise in water level, and seepage from side structure including leakage in pipe and sewer line is some of the problems that one may face. If proper care is not taken for basement related problems, they may endanger the structure of basement and above floors of the building.

Following precautions should be taken to minimize the dampness/ leakage in the basement floor:

  1. The proposed floor of the basement should have adequate slope to the drainage pit of the basement.
  2. Permanent water pumping set should be fixed or fitted in the pit in advance near the outer wall of basement. By doing this arrangement one can discharge the accumulated water immediately from the basement due to heavy rain or leakage in the pipe.
  3. Sewer line for ground or upper floor should be designed in such a way that it cannot be harmful to basement in case of blockage or heavy discharge.
  4. The water supply line should be free from leakage if any leakage found shall be repaired immediately.

The following operations are executed in water proofing of basement where space for excavation around basement is limited:

  1. The base slab of lean concrete is laid followed by construction of external protective wall. Its internal face is rough plastered. Horizontal damp proofing treatment is carried out.
  2. The bitumen based primer is applied with brush on entire area at 0.24 to 0.30 liter per sq. meter after cleaning the surface. 
  3. Bitumen compound polyester membrane is fixed in hot bitumen of grade 85/25 at the rate of 1.5 kg/ square meter. This layer should be protected by construction of flat brick flooring.
  4. The treatment should be continuous on the wall and the floor.
  5. For vertical damp proofing continuous with horizontal a fillet 75 mm ratios of 1:4 cement mortars should be provided at the junction of the slab and outer protective wall.
  6. The horizontal and vertical damp proofing is protected against damage during the subsequent operations.
  7. Flat brick flooring and an inner protective wall are constructed.
  8. The space of 100 mm left between vertical damp roofing treatment and internal protective wall is grouted after laying damp proofing membranes.
  9. Thickness and reinforcement of RCC structural slab and walls are designed according to depth.

After laying base for basement flooring, options for basement flooring as under:

Cement Concrete Flooring:
In general when one use basement as cellar or store or small work shop or as small manufacturing unit than cement concrete floor is best suitable. It is cheap/ economical flooring option and bear rough and tough work on flooring. After the RCC base is laid, the Cement concrete flooring with cement concrete ratio 1:2:4 is laid after dividing the space in to panels either by screeds or by glass strips or with metal strips.

(Cement Concrete Flooring Design Foe Basement Floors)

(This Picture is Contributed By "JMahajan")

The laying process of flooring is the same as described in the flooring section detail link is as under.
http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Flooring-1829/Guidelines-Laying-Cement-Concrete-Floor_0.aspx

Kota Stone Flooring:
Kota Stone flooring is also a good choice for basement flooring. It is good flooring generally adopted in heavy traffic area and it provides a neat aesthetic surface which has high resistance to mechanical wear. The stone slab generally shall be in gray color. It is hard, sound, durable and tough stone. Common thickness of kota stone is 25, 30 or 40 mm. The kota stone slab is laid on the base with 12mm cement mortar 1; 3. After curing it's top surface is grinded and polished.

Ceramic Tile Floor:
Ceramic tile flooring is one of the best choices for basement flooring when one has to use it as living purpose. It is damp-proof and remains cold under bare feet. Before installation of basement floor, make sure the floor of basement is leveled with grout or mortar. Ceramic floor tiles are practical and add to the beauty of your basement. Also you can lay carpets or mats to add comfort to the entire basement. Care should be taken in choosing adhesive because of the base coat laying and of the water vapor seepage.

(Tiles Flooring Design in Basement)

The laying process of flooring is the same as described in the flooring section detail link is as under.
http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Tile-Flooring-1524/Tile-Flooring,-designs--installation-guidelines_0.aspx

Marble Stone Flooring:
Marble Stone Flooring is also the best choices for basement flooring when one has to use it as living purpose. Marbles are metamorphic rocks. This type of rocks is suitable for polishing to enhance its shine. Marble stone is hard, sound, dense, and homogeneous in texture with crystalline texture. Its uniform in color, free from stains, cracks, decay and weathering. The stones come in several colors. Marble stone flooring consists of 20-25 mm thick marble slabs laid over base coat with 20 mm thick base of cement coarse sand mortar of 1:3. It is jointed with white cement slurry mixed with pigment to match the shade of stone.

(Shiny White Marble Flooring in Basement)

The laying process of flooring is the same as described in the flooring section detail link is as under.
http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Marble-Flooring-1132/Specifications-marble-stone-flooring_0.aspx

Linoleum or Vinyl Flooring:  
Vinyl flooring is also good option for basement flooring. It is laminated, solid resilient, unbreakable and flexible having non porous surface. Vinyl flooring is resistant to mild or diluted acids, alkalis, soaps, detergents and petrol. It is high wear resistant and can be cleaned easily with wet cloth. Vinyl flooring is functional for gym, games room, kids play room, home office, store, pool table space, bar or even home. If it is cleaned immediately, concentrated acids and alkalis have no effect on the surface of floor. Vinyl flooring consists of thermoplastic binder, filler and pigments. It is laid on the base coat with good quality adhesive.

(Vinyl Flooring Design for Basement Floors)

(This Picture is Contributed By "JMahajan")

The laying process of flooring is the same as described in the flooring section detail link is as under.
http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Blended-Vinyl-Flooring-2004/Vinyl-Flooring_0.aspx

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