Water Supply and Various Types of Pipes

 

Water supply is the process of general requirement for supply of water from public water supply system to individual building and subsequent distribution of water to various parts of the building. The water from public water supply system to individual buildings is supplied through pipes. A large proportion of capital is invested on pipes while designing water supply distribution system. The following factors should be considered in selection of pipes. 

  •  Strength of pipe
  •  Water carrying capacity
  •  Life and durability of pipe
  •  Expenditure on transportation
  •  Jointing process, maintenance and repairs.

Various Types of Pipes

The pipes are available in several types and sizes. They may be classified into three groups according to the material used in their manufacturing.  

  •  Metallic pipes: the pipes such as CI Pipes, Steel pipes and GI Pipes.
  •  Cement Pipes: the pipes such as Cement Pipes, Asbestos cement (AC) pipes, cement concrete pipes.
  •  Plastic Pipes: the pipes such as Un-plasticized PVC (UPVC ) pipes, Polythene Pipes (low denisity)
    1. Cast Iron (CI) Pipes

      These pipes are mostly used in water supply. They are well suited for pressure and can withstand external load because of their thickness. The pipes are easy in manufacturing, layout and joining. These pipes are manufactured by vertical casting in sand moulds, horizontal casting in sand moulds and centrifugal casting (spun casting pipes).

      Cast iron plumbing pipes

      (This picture is contributed by "Kumar")

      CI Pipes - Strong and heavy.

      CI pipes are heavy in weight. Therefore transportation is costlier and they are not suitable for inaccessible places. Due to heavy weight these are generally made in short length. This increases layout and jointing cost. CI vertical casting pipes are not of very good quality and can be replaced by centrifugal casting (spun casting) pipes. 


      Steel Pipes

      These pipes are extensively used for water supply. They are best suitable for long distance pipe lines of high pressure and provide satisfactory performance during service. These pipes have excellent mechanical properties and are ideally suited for welding. The pipes are made in length more than twice the length of CI pipes; which saves in transport, layout of pipe and joining cost. There is minimum damage to the pipes in transportation. The pipes being light in weight are used for large diameter pipe lines.

      Cement Pipes

      Main advantage of cement pipes in place of metallic pipes is their corrosion resistance. These pipes are bulky, heavy and require careful transportation and handling. The layout process of these pipes is costlier than steel pipes.
       

      Asbestos Cement (AC) Pipes

      These pipes are light in weight and easy in transportation and layout. They have smooth internal surface and are not affected by corrosion (rust). The pipes are extensively used for water supply systems. Holes can be drilled in these pipes. These pipes are not costlier.
       

      Un-plasticized PVC (UPVC) Pipes

      These pipes are rigid PVC pipes. They are light in weight, tough, resistant to chemical attack and large in length. Due to large in length the cost of handling is much whereas transportation and installation cost is less. Smooth internal surface of pipes provide less friction which results in saving of energy. These pipes are not suitable for the area which is very hot.

      PVC plumbing pipes

      (This Picture is contributed by "Ahmed")

      PVC Pipes - Light weight still powerfull.

       

       
      38  Comment(s)
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 10/9/2014 7:10:44 PM
      yyyrety
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 12/5/2013 3:02:48 PM
      I would Like to Know what Year PCV Pipe was available to the Public. What other White Plastic Pipe was available if any in 1973
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 9/11/2013 7:35:37 AM
      whear is plumber diploma collage .
       
      rprao
      By rprao -  On  11/9/2012 8:14:42 PM
      you shoulkd give all states ssr rates for construction .plumbing and sanitary fittings ,so that everybody will have an idia about the govt rates
       
      rprao
      By rprao -  On  11/9/2012 8:13:11 PM
      wanted ssr rates for plumbing and sanitary rates in karnataka
       
      rprao
      By rprao -  On  11/9/2012 8:12:31 PM
      need ssr rates for karnataka for public health systums
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 10/15/2012 12:35:40 PM
      the article was excellent though too summerised on steel pipes
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 9/19/2012 3:32:27 PM
      very good. easy understanding words and pictures.very useful.thanks
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 8/25/2012 8:52:42 PM
      please provided me the weight per meter of tata gi.water supplypipes
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 7/23/2012 7:50:22 PM
      ifghjklyh6 cfhrxtgvexzdrftgvfcvzx fuytf tr
      uytyeg66yg
      4111
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 7/23/2012 7:49:06 PM
      sdfgkhvfuydsfgfumrtyjsgue6jn2yy2rtr54h6w
      6r665hq
      6h 6q5 549656
      4655uore5784hg895438538543543946h
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 7/6/2012 3:36:38 AM
      intresting
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 6/18/2012 2:23:58 PM
      i want to know the advantages as well as the disadvantages of D.I., C.I., G.I., A.C. and Upvc pipes for use in water supply schemes in west bengal.
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 6/18/2012 2:23:13 PM
      i want to know the advantages as well as the disadvantages of D.I., C.I., G.I., A.C. and Upvc pipes for use in water supply schemes in west bengal.
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 2/25/2012 12:15:48 PM
      i want best suitable water supply pipes but you haven,t tell abouut types of pvc pipes
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 2/4/2012 6:04:55 PM
      hou many type of m s pipe
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 1/31/2012 7:32:39 PM
      please send me the details including the rates of c.i pipe and its necessary fittings of size 150mm, 200mm, 225 and 250mm dia
      respectively
       
      rakshit
      By rakshit -  On  11/29/2011 6:02:56 PM
      Can these uPVC pipes be used as pumping main for Over Head Tank of a 5 story residentioal building?
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 9/12/2011 11:03:50 PM
      HI,
      this is better option for qutation
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 7/28/2011 11:06:07 AM
      thank you for the information.
       
      TAHER
      By TAHER -  On  6/2/2011 11:54:07 AM
      I want to know pipe diameter estimation in water supply system PE pipes
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 2/1/2011 7:26:19 PM
      tel me all long form [abberation] of pipes eg; ci,di,gi,ms.....ect thank u
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 10/12/2010 8:30:50 PM
      its better
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 9/24/2010 3:44:55 PM
      we can use various pipes and fittings in house hold for drinking or treater water purposes.
      1. DI
      2. CI
      3. GI
      4. CPVC
      5. PPR
      6. Composite
      7. Pex
      and many more other
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 8/24/2010 7:09:59 PM
      types of water supply pipes
       
      wmint
      By wmint -  On  8/9/2010 2:11:59 PM
      above guys who want to buy various of pipes with best prices,please contact wiht WMint: http://www.westmoonint.com/
      contact person: king yazer
      mail: marketing@westmoonint.com
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 8/8/2010 10:37:21 PM
      I would love to knoe the different companies that produce various kinds of water supply pipes, their matterials specifications and uniit prices. Water meters and feetings cost is also helpfull for me. thanks
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 5/28/2010 5:44:47 PM
      tell all about cpvc pipes & fittings there technology is very much advanced & also cost effective as compair to gi & other pipes available in market
       
      M Jindal
      By M Jindal -  On  4/24/2010 4:35:22 PM
      Let me know so that i could use this information for my project
       
      S L Gupta (Civil Engg)
      By S L Gupta (Civil Engg) -  On  4/20/2010 1:09:39 PM
      Dear Anjaneyulu,

      The permissible velocities of different diameters pipes can be calculated with formula given below:

      Imperial units:A fluids flow velocity in pipes can be calculated with Imperial or American units as
      v = 0.4085 q / d2         (1)
      Where
      v = velocity (ft/s)
      q = volume flow (US gal. /min)
      d = pipe inside diameter (inches) Internal diameter

      SI units: A fluids flow velocity in pipes can be calculated with SI units as
      v = 1.274 q / d2         (2)
      Where
      v = velocity (m/s)
      q = volume flow (m3/s)
      d = pipe inside diameter (m) internal diameter

      Regards
      S.L.Gupta
       
      anjaneyulu
      By anjaneyulu -  On  4/19/2010 12:31:40 PM
      plz give me permissable velocites of GI pipes
       
      anjaneyulu
      By anjaneyulu -  On  4/19/2010 12:30:18 PM
      u r not sending exactly what the clints are asking instead your sending a bulk matter which is not fit to question
       
      anjaneyulu
      By anjaneyulu -  On  4/19/2010 12:24:10 PM
      plz i want to know different types of pipes and its permissable velocites
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 4/6/2010 3:47:36 PM
      gudegbe@yahoo.co.uk
      am greg udegbe a water engineer, your article has been very helpful. pls could you give me a list of various pipe manufacturer needed for manucipal water distribution.
      thanks
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 11/15/2009 12:17:06 PM
      I Need all kinds of plumping reaperig guid
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 8/16/2009 11:03:58 AM
      the most deserving pipe in sanitation is cpvc.you should also tell some information about that pipe ,
       
      Anonymous
      By Anonymous - On 5/27/2009 7:54:01 PM
      Hi,
      I want a pipe through which melted lead could flow smoothly bithout getting jam.

      Regards,
      sanjeev rajput
       
      gaurav aggarwal
      By gaurav aggarwal -  On  4/2/2009 2:41:10 AM
      i think best pipes here is KITEC
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