In building construction water supply, sewerage and drainage are as important as the other constructional parts such as foundation, brick work and laying RCC slab etc.Generally it is observed that some house owners do not pay proper attention towards these works.
If you neglect proper water supply and sewerage by using inferior material or by employing unskilled plumber, you may have to face great difficulties as mentioned below.
- There may be leakage problem which can damage the plaster, the paint and the wood work.
- Appearance of the building may look very bad due dampness.
- There may be a problem of foul smell.
- House owner feels inconvenience due to blockage of water supply and sewer.
- Polluted water may spread on the floor of toilet due to blockage in the sewer line.
- The life of building is reduced due to leakage and dampness.
- The foundation may be damaged due to the leakage.
- The repair of the leakage is very costly because it is done after breaking the plaster, the brick work, and the flooring.
- In some cases it is difficult to detect the leakage because dampness appears on a large area.
- The life of persons may affect due to the problems stated above.
To save some money in material will cost much in later.
Material of good quality should be purchased for water supply, sewerage and drainage work before starting the work. The following points should be kept in mind while purchasing the material.
- Three types of G.I. pipes available in the market are following.
a) Light Duty Pipe marked at the end with yellow color and is stamped at every meter.
b) Medium Duty Pipe marked at the end with blue color and is stamped at every meter.
c) Heavy Duty Pipe marked at the end with red color and is stamped at every meter.
- Light duty pipe should not be used because it has short life. In water supply works use heavy duty pipes because these pipes have more durability by 50% than medium duty pipe. The cost of heavy duty pipe is more by only 10% than the cost of medium duty pipes. While purchasing the material ISI mark should be checked on the pipe and the pipe should be stamped at every meter.
- While laying the pipe line G.I. Fittings/Fixtures of good quality should be used. If G.I. Fittings or Fixtures of inferior quality are used, it may crack by the end and would rust in short time.
- The fitting of good quality is heavy in weight, proper size and deep threading, and in good finishing. It can be judged by verifying some samples.
- In sewer lines “Cast Iron Pipe” is generally used. While purchasing C. I. Pipes the following points should be kept in mind.
a). There must be ISI mark on the pipe.
b). Pipe should be free from pin hole, cracks and should have good finish.
- Leakage of C.I. pipe can be checked by erecting the pipe temporarily in the earth and fill in the pipe with water up to top. If there is any hole or crack in the pipe, the water will come out and thus the pipe can be rejected.
- Heavy duty PVC pipes are as good as C.I. pipes if they are laid with proper jointing and care. It has 50% more life and is cheaper than C I pipes.
- While surveying the market for the material, the quality of the material should be checked by the rates taken from at least three or four shops.
- Verify the rates of all the required items at one time, not for the main item only. Shopkeeper may tell fewer rates for main item/pipe etc. but he will charge more rates on other items in later.
- Purchase accessories of good quality after verification of the sample; whether the durability of any accessory is much and if guaranty is obtained from the shopkeeper.
Points to be kept in mind while laying Water Supply Pipe Lines
- Sewer line and water supply line should not have any contact with each other. Both the lines should have a separation of 3 meters for horizontal pipe lines and 50 cm for vertical pipe lines to avoid contamination of drinking water.
- Pipe line should be passed through MS tube sleeve to allow freedom for expansion and contraction where it crosses a wall or floor.
- G. I. Pipe line should not be in touch with lime or lime mortar because the lime effects on the pipe.
- Water tank must be provided with over flow pipe up to the rain water pipe. Water tank should be 30 cm high from tile tracing for easy cleaning.
- Pipe line in the wall should have 1.5 cm cover for receiving plaster to avoid cracks on the surface.
- Pipe line should be laid down with minimum cushion of 2 feet under the Berms (Pushta) and 4 feet under the roads.
- All the joints should be tight properly by using thread and safeda.
- Pipe line should be tested either by smoke test or by maximum working pressure of the pipes and the joints should be water tight absolutely.
- If the Gate Valve is used frequently, the discharge will spoil soon. Globe Valve is preferred (Globe Valve is more costly than Gate valve).
- Unions should be provided with Stop Cocks.
Points to be kept in mind while laying Sanitary and Sewer Pipes
- Generally it is observed that the top of floor trap is not fixed by taking proper level of the floor of the building. Improper level of the floor creates problem of drainage. The floor trap should be fixed after marking the levels of the proposed floor in the building.
- Top of floor trap in toilet and kitchen should be 12 MM to 20 MM down from the floor level of the building to provide proper slope for easy drainage of water.
Where sewer line crosses the road or drain it should be passed through C.I. or RCC pipes.
Greater the depth of the seal would be more effective it will prevent foul air to come to house from sewer.
Waste pipe should be connected with main sewer only through gully trap to avoid direct foul smell.
For easy self cleaning in sewer line the minimum gradient/slope should be provided as follows.
- 100 MM dia pipe 1in 57
- 150 MM dia pipe 1 in 100
- 200 MM dia pipe 1 in 145
- During execution the mouth of pipes should be covered with empty gunny bags to avoid blockage.
- The joints should be filled with spun yarn, lead and ensure proper cocking to avoid any leakage.
- The foundation and sewer line should be checked well before laying of the floor to avoid damage to the floor.
- Close the sewer line at one side by using gunny bags or cement mortar and fill in the pipe with water on the other side till the pipe is completely filled. Wait for 24 to 48 hours. If there might be any leakage, the water will come to the surface of the pipe or in the joints of the pipe.
- After checking the leakage, top of the pipe line should be covered with cement concrete.
- Stone ware glazed pipe should be of class A.
Keep in mind while fixing accessories
- Mosquito proof Jali should be fixed in flushing cistern and in over flow pipe of the tank.
- All the pipes which are in open should be painted well to avoid the rust.
- Ball cock must be provided in water tank.
- Care should be taken that all the fittings such as Bib Cock etc. are fitted tightly but they should not spoil the surface of the fittings.
- All the sanitary fittings should be done carefully without damaging any surface of sanitary ware or without creating any crack.
- It is advisable that fitting should be covered by papers or old clothes before painting. If any splashes of the paint drop on fittings, these stains should be cleaned immediately.
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