Construction

Hard wood Characteristics and application

Wood is still the most popular choice of material for building and other engineering works. As traditional wood such as teak, deodar etc used in the building work is very rare and costly, so hard wood is used in the low budget building construction. After seasoning and chemical treatment hard gives best result.

Wood Work 

In the building construction, it is most important to select proper/   right wood work i.e. door windows frame and shutters. As wood is costly item so one should be careful about the selection of type of wood in building constructions. Wood has a great roll in the beauty and appearance of the building.  In general there are two types of wood used in construction, one is solid wood and second is ply wood product. In general in construction work, particularly in houses, door and windows’ frames and shutters are made of solid timber. The wood is also used in structure in hilly areas where plenty of wood is available and other building material such as bricks, steel etc are costly and there is difficulty of transportation.

Wood or Timber used for construction should be of first grade and be from the heart of a sound tree, the sap wood being entirely removed. The timber should be free from decay, fungal growth, boxed heart, pitch pocket or streaks on the splits of exposed edges and cracks. The timber should be free from dead knots, warm holes and warps and be well seasoned. The timber which is used in building construction is classified below.Wood or Timber  used for construction should be of first grade and be from the heart of a sound tree, the sap wood being entirely removed. The timber should be free from decay, fungal growth, boxed heart, pitch pocket or streaks on the splits of exposed edges and cracks. The timber should be free from dead knots, warm holes and warps and be well seasoned. The timber which is used in building construction is classified below. 

Hard Wood

Hard wood is non coniferous timber other than teak. This wood is less durable. It will give best result when it is treated properly with wood preservative and also to be used after kiln seasoning.  Hardwoods are widely used in multiple various fields such as in building construction, furniture making, flooring and mislaneous work.  Solid hardwood joinery is costly as compared to softwood. The cost is reduced by using hardwood thin veneer bonded to a core of softwood, plywood. 

Hard wood is available in the market as Timber logs. If you buy a log then you would need to cut the log into the required frame sizes and then let the wood season. Seasoning is a process where you let the moisture in the wood dry to an optimal level. In normal dry warm weather, it is suggested that seasoning for about one month is recommended. After seasoning the timber logs, the logs are then used in the construction work as required.

Hard wood have a smooth surface and can be finished using Paint, Polishing or Varnish

  • Hard wood is also strong and durable wood that’s why it needs a little maintenance.
    Daily care such as wiping the furniture with cloth can provide your furniture a long life.
    Periodical painting and polishing is required as per the usage of the item
  • Hardwood, durable and resistance to water. It provides a charming appearance with high efficiency.Easy to handle, polish and work with.
    Polishing can make a good surface and  is resistance to termite.
  • Weight: Hard wood weight range from 800- 900 kg/ cum.
  • Hardness:It is closer grained, tough and durable.
  • Termite effect:It immune to white ant and insects attack for long period. How ever not always immune from fungus attack.
  • Durability:It is strong and durable wood.
  • Color Range:Brownish grey color.

For more details about purchasing guide line of wood/ timber see the link  below
http://www.gharexpert.com/articles/Raw-Material-1590/Purchasing-Guidelines-Timber_0.aspx

Hard wood door shutter

Doors work like solid barriers in a wall opening. They are used for access between rooms and maintaining the privacy. These doors consist of two parts - frame and shutter. Wood is still the most popular choice of material for construction of door and windows. There are various type of wood used in the manufacturing of doors such as teak, deodar, chir, sal, hard wood etc. Due to price rise teak and deodar wood is rarely used. Hard wood door are used these days as per easily availability and low price.

Door design for hard wood doors:-There are various designs available in wooden doors:

  • Paneled Door
  • Ply Paneled Door
  • Flush Door
  • Half  Panel and Half Glazed Door
  • Glazed Door
  • Wire gauze Door
  • Ledged/Braced & Battened Door
  • Louvered Door

Paneled Hard Wood Door Designs

There are four primary types of  paneled door design as

  • Panel Door
  • Solid Core Door
  • Hollow Metal Insulated Door
  • Hollow Core Wood Door

Panel Door

Consists of wooden panels or boards fixed onto a frame surrounded by wood stiles and railing; panels can be made from solid wood or plywood. Panel doors can consist of one to six wooden panels; but this may be increased. Different types of panels can be used such as plywood, solid timber or glass of various designs and thickness.

  • Single panel door
    The framing for the single panel door comprises of two stiles (vertical member), a top and bottom rail (horizontal members), all of which are of same thickness.
  • Double panel door
    It consists of two wooden panels with additional middle rail or stile that divides the frame into two parts.
  • Door with three panels
    It consists of three wooden panels which include two middle rails or stiles.
  • Door with six panels
    It consists of six wooden panels including three middle stiles and four middle rails divide the frame into six parts of same thickness.
  • Double-leaf doors with six panels
    They consist of two frames with three panels each.
  • Partly paneled and partly glazed door
    It consists of glass panels along with wooden panels. The glass panels are held in place by the use of fixed moldings.
  • Solid Core Door
    It consists of a solid lumber core, compressed wooden fiber core, or rigid foam board laminated on plywood or metal facing.
  • Hollow Metal Insulated Door
    It consists of welded sheet metal. Mineral or cement board (fire resistant or rigid foam board/insulation) is usually added as a core
  • Hollow Core Wooden Door
    It consists of a plywood ( press board) and a honeycomb wood ( paper interior core)             
    Hollow core wooden doors are usually for interior use only.

Since homes have several doors to enter or exit, it is important to look at the efficiency of these doors. This can be done by selecting an efficient door.

Note: These doors come in a set of standard sizes width: 24, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36 and height: 78, 80, 82 and thickness: 1 3/8, 1 3/4 and 2 (all measurements in inches).

Hard wood window

Various types of windows are mentioned below: 

  • Awning window
  • Casement Window
  • Single Hung Windows
  • Double-hung Window
  • Gliding Window
  • Single Hung Windows
  • Pictured/Fixed Window
  • Bay & Bow Window
    • Awning window
      These windows are hinged at the top of the wall and open out at the bottom using a crank handle.
      This window offers a unique style, energy efficiency, low maintenance and durability.
      Such windows are designed to circulate air during rainy season.
      The window blocks reduce the heat of the sun and protect furniture, carpets and other indoor items against sun.
    • Casement window:  
      These windows are generally placed at one side of the wall and usually opens outwards like a door. The windows give you proper views from top-to-bottom and side-to-side. Easy to operate and locks tightly providing greater security. Casement windows provide full ventilation to a room.
    • Single Hung Windows: 
      Single hung windows are typically the same as double hung windows. However in a single-hung window the lower sash (sash is a movable part of the window) opens upwards while the upper sash remains fixed to the wall.
      This window opens vertically providing ventilation. Curved moldings provide elegant look and soft design lines add beauty to your home. 
       The upper sash is fixed and the other sash can be removed for cleaning and maintenance. Ventilation limit locks add security allowing windows to remain partially open.
    • Double-hung window:  
      This window has two sashes (sash means a movable part of the window) both sashes operate vertically. Both sashes provide maximum ventilation to a room.
      Double-hung-windows are opened without consuming exterior space. 
      These hung windows are easy to maintain for cleaning. Ventilation limit locks add security allowing windows to remain partially open. This window does not take extra space while opening towards the wall. 
    • Gliding window:  
      Such windows have two sashes (sash means movable part of the window) which open horizontally and pass over each other. This window is easy to operate and , provides a stylish look to a wall. The simply designed window provides reliability and durability. Both sashes operate for maximum ventilation and for easy cleaning. Generally, these are placed at some height on the walls, especially in homes with children.
    • Pictured / Fixed window:  
      These types of windows are usually fixed and cannot be opened .Such windows do not provide ventilation to a room. Fixed frame windows are good looking and are only for decorative purposes. This window provides beautiful look to the room where it is installed. This window is great source of sunlight. Fixed windows are generally used to see the outside view.
    • Bay&Bow window:  
      Bay & Bow windows are combinations of three or more windows projecting outwards from a room . This window gives a curved look Such a window increases the area of a room and provides extra space to a room which add grace to the room . It increases the flow of light into a room.This window gives attractive and beautiful look for enjoying the beauty of nature.
    • Skylight Window:  
      Skylight Window usually opens outwards and it is faced towards sun. This window is an ideal choice for humid environments such as bathrooms and kitchens where the finishing makes them totally water resistant. This window is smooth and it is easily operated. Central hinges hold the opened window firmly. The window presents the full face of it towards the sky to let in the maximum sunlight. This window is smooth and it is easily operated. Central hinges hold the opened window firmly. This window provides Total Light and Sound Proofing. The design of the window allows easy cleaning and using the room below.
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