Construction

Types of Soil and Digging Tools

Types of Soil

The kinds of soils and their digging tools are given below
1. All kinds of soils (excluding rocky soils)
2. Ordinary rocks
3. Hard rocks


 All kinds of soils (excluding rocky soils)

Any Layer or strata such as Sand, Gravel, Loam, Clay, Mud, Black Cotton, Moorum, Shingle, River or Nallah Bed Boulders etc. and hard core, macadam surface of any description, lime concrete, mud concrete and their mixtures.

Pick axe, Showels, Jumper, Sacrifiers, Ripper and other digging tools are required for digging application.
 
Ordinary rocks

It is a rock which can be excavated (dug) by splitting with Crowbars or Pick axe, Wedging or similar means of excavation not requiring blasting. Examples are Limestone, Sand stone, Hard Laterite, hard Conglomerate and un-reinforced Cement Concrete below ground level. Light blasting may be done for loosening the materials. 
 
Hard rock

It is a rock which requires blasting such as quartzite, granite, basalt, reinforced cement concrete below ground level is classified as hard rock. Where blasting is prohibited for any reasons, the excavation should be carried out by chiseling, wedging or by any other easy method.  


 
Precautions during Excavation of 'Hard Rock'

  • Display red flags for the safety of persons around the area where blasting operations are carried out. 
  •  Maintain a safe distance of at least 200 meters from the blasting site for all the workers at site.     
  •  Give audio warning through blowing whistles before igniting the fuse.   
  •  Do ‘Blasting’ work under careful supervision 
  •  Employ a Trained Professional for blasting. 
  •  Do not let the ‘Blasting’ happen within 200 meters of an existing structure.

Tools for Ground Work 

The following tools are required for ground work.


1. Ripper
2. Crowbars
3. Shovel
4. Pick Axe 

Ripper
It is a bulldozer equipped with one or more heavy tines for breaking up compacted soils, hard pans, and stumps. It is also used on old grasslands and agricultural lands to break up hard pans.


 
Crowbars
Crowbar is a heavy iron lever with one end forged into a wedge. 
 
Shovel
Shovel with wide blade is especially appropriate for lifting snow, coal, or sand. 
 
Pick Axe
A pick axe is a tool used for manual labor which consists of a hard spike attached perpendicular to a handle.  

   
   
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