The area should be cleared of bushes, vegetation, grass, branches, trees and saplings.
The roots of trees and saplings should be removed up to the depth of 60 cm below ground level.
Existing structures and services such as power cables, drainage pipes etc. within or adjacent to the area if required to be diverted/ removed, should be diverted or dismantled as per requirement.
Archeological monuments should be fenced in the area where the work is to be started.
Clearance of 'Antiquities'
At time of working when any archeological article such as relics of antiquity, coins, fossils, or other valuable articles should be delivered to the Government department whereas the other useful material if found should be stacked separately and this material is the property of the Government.
Removing Roots during 'Ground Work'
The roots of trees should be removed up to the depth of 60 cm below the ground level or 30 cm below formation level or 15 cm below sub grade level whichever is lower. The holes should be filled up with the earth which is rammed and leveled.
Filling up the 'Ground'
The earth used for filling should be free from all roots, grass, bushes, branches, trees, saplings and wastes.
Filling up with excavated earth should be done in regular parallel layers.
All lumps and clods exceeding 8 cm in any direction should be broken.
Each layer should be watered and consolidated with iron rammer.
The top and sides of the filling should be neatly dressed.
Periphery of Excavation Area
Before the earth work is started, the area coming under cutting and filling should be cleared of shrubs, vegetation, brushwood, trees and saplings of girth up to 30 cm above ground level. The rubbish should be removed up to a distance of 50 meters outside the periphery of the area.
Protective Measures during Excavation
Excavation should be fenced securely providing proper cautionary signs, conspicuously displayed during the day and illuminated properly with red lights during the night to avoid accidents.
Excavation operations should not damage adjoining structures or dislocate the services.
Excavation should not be carried out below foundation level of the adjacent buildings until under-pinning, shoring etc is done.
A solid roof on building is very important for everybody living in the house. The roof should be constructed in a way that assures you great safety. Here are given details about different types of roofing.
Frames of doors and windows are most important parts of your doors and windows. They are available in different size, height, width and shapes. Frames hold locks and hinges and support door and windows to shut and open easily. Here is what you need to know about different doors and windows frames.
Brick work is an important part of construction work done with the help of bricks and cement mortar. It is done with different quality of bricks with different ratios of cement mortar according to the requirement.
Fine sand should consist of natural sand or crushed stone sand. It should be hard, durable, clean and be free from organic matter etc. and should not contain any appreciable amount of clay balls and harmful impurities such as alkalis, salts, coal, decayed vegetation etc.
Cracks can happen due to foundation movements and settlements of building, thermal movements, chemical reactions, elastic deformations and shrinkage etc. in buildings. They can damage plaster of walls, ceilings and destroy the beauty of the structure also. Let’s know their reasons in detail and get preventive measures.
To minimize the danger of blistering, risk of steam formation etc. Storage temperature of 60 degree C is recommended. This may be increased up to 65 degree C when soft water is used and the storage capacity is limited.