Earthquake safety tips
Earthquake can strike suddenly with very little warning. One minute you may be enjoying the company of your friends and family and the next minute the floor beneath you begins to shake. You cannot stop nature, but you can learn how to react during an earthquake. Here are some tips that may help you to ensure your safety & the safety of the people around you..
Safety before the Earthquake
- The building should be constructed by taking all earthquake safety measures.
- Building should not have any crack either in foundation or in structure, if any then it should be repaired with the consultation of civil engineer.
- Loose objects placed at a height or heavy objects should be affixed to the adjoining walls so that these objects may not harm the persons living in the rooms.
- Place heavy objects or articles on the lower shelves or on floors.
- Heavy hanging objects such as head light should not be kept in bedroom, sleeping area and living area.
- Store all breakable objects, flammable products and pesticides in low closed cabinets with proper locks.
- Make sure that all the family members know how to respond after earthquake and they should have emergency telephone number of police and fire fighting stations.
- All family members should have knowledge about the location of electric main switch and they should know how to turn off the electric main switch and gas connection to avoid any further damage at the time of earthquake.
- First aid kit, torch, flash light, some food and water, radio with battery should be set aside for the emergency and each family member should know about the storage so that these items would be helpful after the earthquake.
Safety during the Earthquake
- First of all, when earthquake occurs try to get out the house.
- Never use lift during the earthquake it may harm you.
- At the time of earthquake if someone is inside the building he should try to take shelter under heavy desk or table or stand under the door ways but away from glass windows, heavy objects such as loose cabinets, book shelves, Mirror and hanging heavy lights etc.
- If you are in bedroom then take shelter under bed or table or keep pillows on head and move away from electric circuits.
- If you are outside of your house at the time of earthquake, move away from electric poles, buildings, electric towers and trees.
- If you are in car then move the car away from building, trees, electric poles and bridges. Stop car in an open area and wait until the shaking is over.
- One should remain calm during earthquake.
Safety after the Earthquake
- Come out from the building as soon as shaking stops.
- Visually check the building and check whether cracks or any other damage has happened to the building.
- Make sure that all the injurious persons of your family and neighbors are attended and given first aid.
- Remain out side the building as far as possible there may be any damage in the building after earthquake due to settlement etc. which takes place slowly.
- Doors, cabinets and cup board should be open carefully there may be chance of structural damage that may harm you.
- Earthquake generally cracks gas pipe lines and electrical wires, if there is any smell of gas open doors and windows of house and get everyone outside the house.
- Turn off switches of gases, water line, and electrical main switch and do not use flammable material that may be dangerous at the time of leakage.
- Be aware of additional earthquake shocks.
- One should not go to the damaged area and should not stand near any damage building.
- Sometimes behavior of pets such as cats, dogs may changes during earthquake, watch animals closely and keep them in fenced yard.
All parts of a building should firmly be tied together and stiffly braced at corners in such a manner that the whole structure will tend to move as a unit.
RCC : It is defined as reinforced cement concrete.
Steel: It is an metal alloy of iron with small amounts of carbon; widely used in construction.
Earthquakes strike without much warning. It may harm badly designed & constructed buildings killing its inhabitants. Tips in this article explain about the earthquake resistant construction & your response if the earth quake does happen.
Vertical reinforcement is required in all buildings in seismic zones V and three story (or more) buildings in zone IV also.The critical points where vertical steel bars are required through the masonry are following:
.Loose fine sand, soft silt, black cotton soil and expensive clays should be avoided for foundation. If unavoidable the building shall rest either on a rigid raft foundation.
The RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) band is as wide as the thickness of wall and 75 mm to 100 mm thick and constructed using M 15(1:2:4) cement concrete
.Vertical clear distance between openings should be less than 60cms.
.Horizontal clear distance between openings should be less than ½ x height of the shorter openings subject to minimum of 450 mm.
.Seismic (Earthquake affected) zone in which the building is located.
.Type of the soil over which the building is situated. Black cotton soil and expensive clays should be avoided for foundation.
The outer shell of the earth called lithosphere is broken into plates which are in constant motion, moving at about the same speed that fingernail grows.
The following points should be kept in mind during construction of building for the protection against ‘Earth Quake’.
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