Which type of building materials and construction practices are <br> recommended for protection against earthquake?
The building materials are following:
RCC : It is defined as reinforced cement concrete.
Steel: It is an metal alloy of iron with small amounts of carbon; widely used in construction.
Carbon acts as a hardening agent, preventing iron atoms.
Steel with increased carbon content can be made harder and stronger than iron, but is also more brittle.
Steel is an alloy of iron usually containing less than 1% carbon which is used most frequently in the automotive and construction industries or is cast into cans, bars, strips, sheets, nails, spikes, wire, rods or pipes as needed by the intended user.
Timber: Timber has higher strength per unit weight and is very suitable for earthquake resistant constructions.However timber use is generally restricted in construction for more than two story buildings.
Whether the cement is fresh, not partly set due to moisture.
Whether the sand for making mortar is clean, free from silt, vegetable matter, or cow dung.
The following construction practices must be ensured:
Whether the masonry units are soaked in water before laying.
The masons build the walls truly vertical with the courses level.
All vertical joints between bricks are filled with mortar and not left hollow.
The vertical joints are broken between consecutive courses.
The crushing strength of the bricks should not be less than 105kg/sqcm.
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Vertical reinforcement is required in all buildings in seismic zones V and three story (or more) buildings in zone IV also.The critical points where vertical steel bars are required through the masonry are following:
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