Construction

How does earth quake affect the building?


  •  The outer shell of the earth called lithosphere is broken into plates which are in constant motion, moving at about the same speed that fingernail grows. 

  • Sometimes when the plates rub each other, they stick a little and do not slide smoothly. When the plates push against each other without moving, the pressure is built up.

  • When the pressure becomes more than the edge of the plates can stand, a small part of the plates breaks or readjusts by moving up, down, or sideways. 

  • This fracturing, crumbling, or readjustment of the plates releases huge amount of energy and causes earthquake. 

  • Earthquakes are due to the sudden release of the tremendous amount of the energy within the earth by the sudden movement at a point called focus. 

  • The resulting shock sends out longitudinal and transverse vibrations in all directions in the form of the energy waves which are called Seismic waves recorded on Seismographs. 

  • Thus the earthquake affects the buildings by destroying or dislocating of the walls, pillars or roofs 


 
 
 
 

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All parts of a building should firmly be tied together and stiffly braced at corners in such a manner that the whole structure will tend to move as a unit.
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Vertical reinforcement is required in all buildings in seismic zones V and three story (or more) buildings in zone IV also.The critical points where vertical steel bars are required through the masonry are following:
.Loose fine sand, soft silt, black cotton soil and expensive clays should be avoided for foundation. If unavoidable the building shall rest either on a rigid raft foundation.
The RCC (Reinforced Cement Concrete) band is as wide as the thickness of wall and 75 mm to 100 mm thick and constructed using M 15(1:2:4) cement concrete
.Vertical clear distance between openings should be less than 60cms. .Horizontal clear distance between openings should be less than ½ x height of the shorter openings subject to minimum of 450 mm.
.Seismic (Earthquake affected) zone in which the building is located. .Type of the soil over which the building is situated. Black cotton soil and expensive clays should be avoided for foundation.
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Brahmasthan is a powerful zone of the house. It should have open space for flow of energy in the house. The positive energy is very useful for living beings of the occupants of the house.
Brick work is an important part of construction work done with the help of bricks and cement mortar. It is done with different quality of bricks with different ratios of cement mortar according to the requirement.
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